1. I think small child suitably bribed is the best solution for your bolt.
2. The hole and turning block are as Spike says probably a spinnaker pole dow/up haul.
3. The genoa works more efficiently to windward when it has a narrower sheeting angle i.e.on the side benches. However it is very important to get the angle of pull on the sheet correct. What you should try to achieve is a similar degree of curve on the leach of the genoa as the front of the main. It is this slot between the two that increases the efficiency of the rig as a whole. Therefore if you do move the fairleads inboard, you need to have sone means of adjusting them forward and aft.